Marjoram (Orīganum majorāna) is a plant with a characteristic taste that has received the approval of culinary experts on all continents. Marjoram brightens perfumes with a spicy aroma and easily gives its useful qualities to people.
The ancient Greeks were the first to appreciate the unusual properties of marjoram. This fragrant herb was considered a strong aphrodisiac, helped to strengthen love, and was often present in the composition of wine. In the 16th century, marjoram spread widely from India to the Mediterranean countries. A plant with a pleasant aroma and taste quickly found application in cooking. Marjoram was added to soups, meat and vegetable dishes, liqueurs, beer and refreshing drinks.
Referred to by the Arabs as "incomparable" (marijamie), marjoram received a more prosaic name in Europe - "sausage herb". The special taste and smell of Bavarian sausages with the addition of spices served as an example for the widespread use of the plant in the preparation of minced meat. Dry marjoram leaves were sniffed as tobacco, which, in addition to sneezing, was supposed to "enlighten the mind and refresh the memory."
A member of the mint family, marjoram has a spicy smell and taste. The plant reaches a length of 40-50 cm. Small oval leaves are oppositely located on numerous tetrahedral stems. The entire ground part is covered with small villi, giving the plant a velvety appearance. Marjoram blooms in mid-summer with white and pink flowers collected in false ears.
Perennial marjoram plants are found wild in warm countries: in Turkey, in northern Africa, in the Mediterranean. In severe winters, marjoram is cultivated as an annual plant. On an industrial scale, the plant is grown in India, Egypt, South America and the Middle East.
1 Nutritional value
2 Medicinal properties
3 Application in cooking
4 In perfumery and cosmetology
6 Method of application
7 Gathering and harvesting
The nutritional value
In the leaves of marjoram, in addition to the essential oil, contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vegetable fiber. Energy value in 100 g - 271 kcal.
The medicinal properties of the plant acquired due to the rich content:
- B vitamins: B1, B2, B6, B12 and ascorbic acid;
- fat-soluble vitamins: A, E, K;
- organic acids;
- bitterness and tannins;
- trace elements: iron, copper, zinc, selenium, manganese;
- macronutrients: phosphorus, sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium.
The composition of the medicinal part of the plant makes its use universal in case of reduced immunity, low hemoglobin and hypovitaminosis. The herb exhibits medicinal properties in diseases of the stomach, relieves pain and spasms. Improves digestion and appetite. It has a mild choleretic and laxative effect.
Marjoram is used for colds. Tea and inhalations have the ability to alleviate cough, improve sputum discharge and have an anti-inflammatory effect on the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. The plant treats runny nose and inflammation of the paranasal sinuses in children and adults.
Ingestion in the form of herbal tea or with the addition of essential oil tones, relieves depression and irritability, relieves headaches, and has a beneficial effect on the vessels of the brain and heart.
Replaces salt in a salt-free diet for people with diabetes and kidney disease.
The relaxing, warming and analgesic properties of marjoram oil are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, sprains, myositis, bruises. Massage relieves swelling and pain in sports and domestic injuries.
On wound surfaces, the herb acts as an antimicrobial and wound healing agent.
Application in cooking
The main use of marjoram found in cooking. As a spicy seasoning, fresh leaves are used in salads, sauces, ketchup, cold appetizers, and drinks.
In dry form, add to soups, vegetable, meat and fish dishes. During heat treatment, the taste and useful qualities of marjoram are partially lost. Therefore, it is added at the end of cooking.
Marjoram is used alone or mixed with other aromatic herbs for a wide range of dishes. A pronounced smell with a slight hint of cardamom and a bitter-sharp taste go well with the aromas of nutmeg, bay leaf, black pepper. In the recipe, marjoram perfectly replaces oregano and gives excellent taste to pizza, pasta, lasagna.
For dressing salads, healthy vinegar or oil mixtures with marjoram are prepared. A few leaves of the plant, added to vinegar or olive oil, give the dressing a delicate aroma and characteristic taste after 5–7 days infusion.
In the food industry, marjoram is involved in the preparation of sausages, cheeses, beer, other alcoholic and refreshing drinks, and is added to marinades when canning zucchini, squash, cucumbers and tomatoes.
Marjoram in perfumery and cosmetology
The aroma of marjoram refreshes the floral bouquets of eau de toilette and eau de parfum, harmonizing with the aromas of bergamot, chamomile, patchouli, rose and citrus oils.
As a cosmetic, marjoram shows useful qualities in strengthening the hair follicle, promotes hair growth, and softens rough skin.
For acne and enlarged pores, the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of marjoram are used.
Marjoram is harmless to the body in reasonable dosages, but when consumed excessively, it causes headache and weakness.
Checking the reaction is quite simple - apply a drop of oil to a small area of the skin. A slight burning sensation is a normal reaction, and if there is no redness and itching, then there are no contraindications. You can safely use marjoram as a spice, medicinal or cosmetic.
Contraindications for use:
- children's age up to 5 years;
- tendency to hypotension;
- individual sensitivity to essential oils and herbal ingredients.
Mode of application
Tea from dried and fresh marjoram is prepared at the rate of 1 tsp. raw materials in a glass of boiling water. After 5 minutes, the drink can be drunk in small sips, but no more than 2 cups per day.
To prepare the ointment at home, you will need pounded marjoram herb and wine alcohol (1 tsp each). The mixture is kept for several hours, then mixed with 1 tsp. butter, heat in a water bath for 10 minutes, filter and cool.
Marjoram oil has found application as rubbing, compresses, massage products, inhalations, applications and internal use:
Marjoram oil intake. With green tea in the amount of 2-3 drops per glass or a mixture of vegetable and marjoram oil on a piece of bread (2 drops each).
Cream for rubbing and massage. In 10 g of the base, add 6-10 drops of marjoram oil according to the purpose, mix.
Inhalations. Pour 2-3 drops of marjoram oil into a container of hot water. Procedure duration: up to 5 minutes.
Applications. An effective remedy that softens rough skin and calluses is prepared by mixing marjoram and olive oil (5 drops each). Apply to problem areas of the skin and calluses, which are easily removed after several procedures.
Collection and preparation of marjoram herb
At the beginning of summer, when the plant is just entering the flowering phase. Gathered in bundles, the herb is dried under a canopy or in a ventilated room. Dry leaves for storage are folded into paper bags.
Within 3 years, marjoram will not lose its beneficial qualities and can be used for external and internal use.
Marjoram oil from fresh green or dry mass is obtained by water-steam distillation, which preserves the medicinal properties of the plant. Store in tightly closed dark glass bottles, protected from direct sunlight.